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When taiga is native home and only for animals

Author:  Noskov V.
Source:  Conservation of natural and cultural heritage of Baikal. - Moscow-Ulan-Ude, 2010. - . 4-6.

Among all specially protected areas of Buryatia the state biological zakazniks are the most numerous. Unlike the reserves the zakazniks' areas cover forest-steppe and taiga zones, highland complex and wetlands. At the present time only zakazniks and reserves have data on number of rare and endangered species recorded in the Red Books of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Buryatia. Not the least is that a number of zakazniks were established pursuant to the international conventions on the protection of migratory birds and their habitats (Borgoysky, Tugnuisky, Kabansky and Verlkhneangarsky).

In 1995 the Okhotoupravlenie carried out the analysis of activity of 27 zakazniks operating at that time. It was discovered that at the territory of a number of zakazniks the long-term ban for hunting without limitation of anthropogenic impact did not result properly. Based on the materials presented to the Government 7 zakazniks were reorganized during the period 1995-2000.

Today there are 13 zakazniks of the regional significance and 3 of the federal operating in the Republic, including Altacheisky and Frolikhinsky. Kabansky ornithology zakaznik in the Selenga river delta is the structural division of the Baikal reserve. The total area of zakazniks is 843 th. ha, what is 2.6% of total area of the Republic and around 28% of area of all Republican SPAs. Zakazniks are located in 13 administrative districts, while six of them - directly in the Baikal lake coastal zone.

Each of the zakazniks in some degree played a positive role in conservation of and increase in number of game, and especially rare and endangered species. In addition to protection the reproductive works were carried out for a long time at the territory of various zakazniks, including related to dissemination of wild animals - for instance, experiment on take of brown hare to the Altacheisky zakaznik, dissemination of sable in Snezhinsky and Uzko-Lugsky zakazniks, tarbagan in Khudaksky zakaznik, musk-rat in several zakazniks with wetlands. The experiments on arrangement of winter feed-up for wild animals were carried out in the zakazniks during several years. The most effective biotechnical activities with respect to particular zones of our Republic were identified. The existing system of zakazniks in Buryatia today, at our view, is optimal so far. The geography of their location covers many directions in the field of wild life protection and their habitats. Management of zakazniks and carrying out of activities at their territories is assigned with Okhotoupravlenie. The zakaznik service is staffed with 2 hunting managers and 38 game wardens.

The complex of biotechnological and reproductive activities includes salting of saline soils, arrangement of animals feed-up, elimination of wolves and other. Thus, due to high efficiency of hog feed-up in Altacheisky zakaznik in few years its number was increased in 20 times. There are 300 species ranging now. Their vaccination is carried out. In only 2000-2003 some 120 ha of feeding grounds were seeded, 28 t of grain wastes and 9 t of salt were spread out. As an average in these years 961 rubles was invested per 1 th. ha of the zakazniks' area. Such sum as per hunting sites is 8 rubles. Since 1998 Okhotoupravlenie joined several international projects on biological diversity conservation at the Baikal natural territory. As an example of such works at both the regional and international level is the joint work with the Federal Service for Forestry of Buryatia under the TACIS project on landscape-ecological designing of Pribaikalsky zakaznik area. Nowadays it is the model territory where the accents of interest of both the forest users and zakazniks themselves are clearly set. Tunguisky and Altacheisky zakazniks became the pilot areas for implementation under the GEF project of the sub-project on biodiversity conservation in Tugnuy and Sukhara river basins. With the assistance of this project the construction of pound with 7 ha area was completed aimed at improvement of hunting animals' habitation.

In 2004 the aerial inventory of wild ungulates took place in the Republic, the first in 15 years, which has witnessed on big number of hunting animals in Snezhinsky and Dorongsky zakazniks, in opposite to the adjacent areas.

There are problems in the activity of Buryatia biological zakazniks although. Thus, with the appearance of the law "On the specially protected areas" in 1995 the funding of zakazniks and running costs for the game keeper service was carried out according to the old scheme and at the costs of the federal budget mainly. If today we'll keep the scheme of zakazniks work through the Okhotoupravlenie than it is necessary to make the relevant agreements and the corresponding level of funding through the regional budget. According to the preliminary estimates to maintain the regular level of zakazniks work with strengthening of their logistics it will be needed not less than 3.6 mln. rubles annually.

Today Okhotoupravlenie seeks possibilities for non-budgetary funding of the zakazniks work. Touristic routes were developed for three zakazniks - Frolikhinsky, Verkhneangarsky and Pribaikalsky. The fees for visiting the territory of these zakazniks were determined according to the legislation of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Buryatia.

The calculations of cost for visit permits were developed. Funds obtained as a result of tourist visits are used for protection, reproduction and biotechnological activities.

However, it is necessary to develop the unique management plan for regional and federal zakazniks, possibly all SPAs, development of methodic for zakazniks ecosystem condition assessment according to the unified methodic, optimization of institutional and legal form of zakazniks activity, scientific research work, mobilization of additional funds for zakazniks activity and much more.

Funding of zakazniks is implemented from the federal budget - 60% or 5.8 mln. rubles, 8% or 7 mln. rubles comes from the republican budget, and 32% or 3.1 mln. rubles - from other sources. Cost of basic assets of the regional zakazniks is 550 th. rubles, the federal ones - 563 th. rubles, and the wear rate is from 50% through 70%. There are 5 cordon-bases and 29 transitional winter quarters in zakazniks.

At the present time Okhotoupravlenie carries out the work on official registration of land areas, where the buildings are located, in line with the land and forest legislation. There are 2 cars, 3 mo-torboats, 3 snowmobiles, and 11 horses adopted by the regional zakazniks. Also, 1 private vehicle and 1 motorbike are used for the zakazniks protection in line with the relevant agreements. The service is fully armed and for 15% as per required by the form. The system of major activities took place at the territory of zakazniks first of all includes monitoring and inventory of game animals inhabiting the area of zakazniks, as well as species recorded in the Red Books.

The maintenance of cadastre of the state zakazniks is assigned with the Okhotoupravlenie since 2000 in line with the relevant regulatory acts. Annually it carries out in zakazniks the inventory of waterfowls, marmots and other animals. The inventory outcomes demonstrate the stability in number of game animals, as well as their increase in particular species. Adoption of the Targeted Republican Programme "Protection and Reproduction of Animal World Objects, Referred to as the Hunting Objects of the Republic of Buryatia for 2003-2005", where the block of activities on the protection of the state biological zakazniks is included, allowed to allocate 433 th. rubles from the regional budget and 2.4 mln. rubles - from the federal in 2003, and 257 th. rubles and 2.3 mln. rubles respectively in 2004.



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