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Waters, defeating the permafrost

Author:  Kislov E.
Source:  Conservation of natural and cultural heritage of Baikal. - Moscow- Ulan-Ude, 2010. - P.62-65.

The major part of the Buryatia mineral springs is located in the most picturesque sites: at the Baikal coast, in Tunkinsky and Barguzinsky valleys. This provides additional possibilities for balneal tourism development in Buryatia.

The Severobaikalsky district is one of the richest with various mineral springs in Buryatia. There are Barguzinsky biosphere reserve, Frolikhinsky federal zakaznik and Verkhneangarsky zakaznik located at the region's territory. The region is rich in natural monuments, from which fewer water monuments were formally registered but are not protected actually. Unemployment is significant in the region due to Baykal-Amur Railroad construction phase-out and reduction in railway staff. At the other hand, the rapid increase of tourist run is underway. In a perspective - the development of the region as closer recreational area for builders and producing people of bigger regional deposits - Sukholozhsky goldmine, Udokansky copper and Kholodninsky lead-zinc mines. The expansion of use of natural monuments is proposed in the region for the development of varied tourism.

At this the most attractive, studied and already used now resource of the Severobaikalsky district are mineral springs. Namely they are exceptionally attractive resource for the tourism development. The combined tours that match elements of health-improving, adventure, educational and scientific tourism are possible there.

- Angarakan-Sartinsky spring - left shore of the Upper Angara river, in 450 m lower the Sarta river mouth, village Verkhnyaia Zaimka. Thermal radon spring with bicarbonate-sulphate-sodium water. Hydrotherms are runs out with ten griffons along the rear joint of the first terrace above the flood plain with around 50 m distance between major outcomes. Mineralization - 0.2 g/1, temperature of water reaches 38-46°C. Water is slightly radon - its concentration is around 40 eman. The cumulative spring discharge - 1.61/s.

- Asindinsky spring - Upper Angara river valley, Yanchuy river mouth. Thermal sulphate-sodium water with discharge of 1.0-1.5 1/s, and temperature 40-50°C.

Bolsherechensky springs - western slope of Barguzinsky ridge. A group of thermal water outcomes, the last of which are distanced for 3 km from each other. Two are located in 1 km upper the Nizhnyaya Zagorodnaya river mouth, at the left and right edges of Bolshaya river valley; one - at the right edge of Nizhnyaya Zagorodnaya river valley in 300 m from the mouth; one more - at the foot of the second right-bank terrace of Bolshaya river in 300 m upper of the Talamush river mouth; and the last - at the left bank of Talamush river in 2.5 km upper the mouth. The water temperature is 25-60°C, the maximal was 74.5C. The spring waters are characterized with sulphate-sodium composition, and at the output along the Talamush river - sulphate-bicarbonate-sodium composition. Mineralization is 0.19-0.26 g/1, cumulative discharge of springs exceeds 31/s.

-Verkhneangarsky spring - Upper Angara river valley at the downstream, Nizheangarsk town. Spring is located at the right bank of Upper Angara river. The water comes out in 80-100 m from the river bed due to steep granite slope covered in its lower part with large-bur screes. The spring debit is insignificant - around 0.3 1/s, water temperature - 30-32T. Water composition is bicarbonate-sulphate-sodium with mineralization of 30.26 g/1 and silica of 45-50 mg/1.

- Verkhnezaimkinsky spring - Upper Angara river valley, Verkhnyaya Zaimka village. Thermal sulphate-sodium water with cumulative discharge of 50 1/s and temperature 18,2-27,5°C.

- Thermal spring Khakusy - north-eastern coast of Baikal, Khakusy resort. The spring is located in approximately 1 km from the bay coast of with same name. Thermal mineral spring. Several separated outcomes are located within the horseshoe-shaped area with diameter of around 50 m. The water composition is bicarbonate-sulphate-sodium with mineralization of 0,3 g/1. fluorine contents varies from 3 to 5 mg/1, silica - 60-65 mg/1, hydrogen sulphide - 2-3 mg/1 with pH more than 8.4. The water temperature at the main outcome is 47°C, in the drinking well - 44C. The cumulative discharge of the spring reaches 85 1/s. The spring is surrounded with picturesque spruce forest.

It's a popular resort existed to 1938 and renewed in 1954. The water is used for therapeutical procedures with the diseases of the musculoskeletal system, nervous system, skin and gynecological ones. Hydropathic is one of the structural subdivisions of Nizhneangarsk central district hospital. Due to remoteness and hard accessibility this hydropathic is operating in summer periods (95 beds). Although in winter time the locality is reachable over the ice of Baikal, and the spring water could be used for heating.

- Goudzhekitsky spring - thermal spring locate din 28 km west of Severobaikalsk city. It was found in 1989. The water composition is close to Dilizhansky spring, and it is used external for skin, gynecological, musculoskeletal and nervous system diseases. The year-round clinic with hotel complex for 56 guests is operating on the basis of this spring.

1£)'- north-east coast of Baikal, Davsha river mouth, Davsha village. Thermal water discharge is taking place on the top of 8-meter terrace. The spring's water is sulphate-sodium with mineralization 0.4-0.5 g/1. The following was founded in its composition: fluorine - 8-10 mg/1, silica - 65-100 mg/1, pH - over 8.4. The water Temperature is 42-43°C. Cumulative discharge of the spring is 1.2-1.5 1/s. The small housing with two baths is built.

- Dzelindinsky springs - Upper Angara river valley, Dzelinda river mouth, Verkhnyaya Zaimka village. The springs are presented with two groups of hydrotherm discharges in 2 km distance in near mouth area of Dzelinda river mouth - the right tributary of Upper Angara river. The first outcome in the right edge of valley in 38 km from Verkhnyaya Zaimka village is close to tectonic fracture as a ledge of 6-8 m height, and consists of four strongly aerated griffons with water temperature 32-44°C and cumulative discharge 10 1/s. The water here is sulphate-bicarbonate with mineralization of 0.56 g/1 and silica around 130 mg/1. There are houses and baths constructed there. The second spring is located at the sandbar on the left bank of Upper Angara river opposite to Dzelinda river mouth.

- Delun-Uransky spring - Upper Angara river valley, Niro stream mouth. Thermal water with discharge of 10-14 1/s and temperature of 35°C.

- Ezovsky spring   - east Baikal coast, Ezovka river shore. Bicarbonate-sulphate-sodium water with mineralization 0.23 g/1, discharge over 20 1/s, and temperature of 23°C with radon concentrations of 37.5 eman.

- Irkaninsky spring - Upper Angara river valley, north-east coast of Irkana lake, Ku-mora village. Thermal mineral low radon level spring. Thermal waters are discharging through several jets aerated with nitrogen along the terrace above the flood plain and have visible developed spring craters part of which is equipped with wooden frames. The water temperature reaches 35°C. Mineralization - 0.53 g/1. The water is sulphate-sodium in its composition. Silica is about 40 mg/1. Amount of radon is 35 eman. Cumulative discharge of the spring reaches 101/s.

Goryachiy Kliuch spring - Severomuisky ridge, Kotera river valley, 15 km downstream the Akumakit river inflow. Thermal sulphate calcium-soduim water with high mineralization, discharge of 0.04-4 1/s, and temperature 70°C.

- Korikeisky spring - Upper Angara river valley, Verkhnyaya Zaimka village. It is located in 7 km from the village upper-stream the Upper Angara river. The hot water is running out at near-riverbed right bank part of valley opposite to Korikei island with several jets for a distance of 5 m at the foot of the slope. The water has bicarbonate-sulphate-sodium composition with silica of 45-50 mg/1. Mineralization - 0.3 g/1. The water's temperature reaches 43°C, discharge - 20 1/s. The discharge is low as the significant part of mineral waters is discharging into the sub-riverbed deposits failed in reaching the surface.

- Kotel'nikavsky spring - north-western coast of Baikal, cape Kotel'nikovsky. The spring is located in 35 km south of Baikalskoye village. The spring is on the surface of low terrace (0.5-1.0 m), made of sand and gravel deposits. The discharge place is crater like deepening at the floor of which there are few small griffons. The area around is wet, the water flowing isn't noticeable. Apparently, water is percolated through alluvium to the lake, generating outlets at the beach and straight at the shore. When waters are high the lake approaches it and effecting on the water temperature, which vary from 30 to 71°C. The water composition is fluoride-bicarbonate-sodium, and mineralization is 30.4 g/1. It is not recommended to drink this water due to high fluorine contents - 20-22 mg/1. Silica is - 130 mg/1, pH - 8.5-8.9. "BAMtonnelstroy" had built preventorium at this spring, and in 1987 it was drawned with well. Primarily discharge was reaching 11 1/s under the uncontrolled flowing, and than set at 41/s. The water chemical composition changed: fluorine - 25 mg/1, mineralization - 0.21 g/1, pH - 9.4, and temperature reached 81C. The year-round sanatorium-preventorium of "BAMtonnelstroy" is operating on the basis of this spring.

- Sartinsky spring - Upper Angara river valley, Sarta river mouth. Thermal bicarbonate-sodium water with discharge of 0.7-0.81/s, and temperature 30-35°C.

- Turikansky spring - Upper Angara river valley,   Turikan   river   mouth.   Thermal bicarbonate-sulphate-sodium water with discharge of 0.5-1.0 /s, and temperature 18-20°C.

- Ust-Kotersky springs - Kotera river valley, former village Chencha. Bicarbonate magnesium-calcium water with mineralization of 12 mg/1 and temperature 6.6-10.2°C.

 - Frolikhinsky spring - north-east Baikal coast, Frolikha river mouth. It's located at the left slope of Frolikha river valley, in 2 km upper the mouth. The outlets are close to slope's foot made of granite. At the deepening floor of 1-1.5 m there are numerous griffons of hot water transporting granite gruss. For 800 m along the slope there's a lot of smaller thermal springs that generate the unified discharge area along the tectonic deformation, to which the river valley is connected. Water is bicarbonate-sulphate calcium-sodium with mineralization of 0.24 g/1. Cumulative discharge is - 7-8 1/s. The water temperature is 35-36°C at the largest outlet with discharge of 4.5 1/s.

Kholodninsky spring - Northern Near-Baikal area, southern slope of Kholodnaya river. Chalybeate mineral waters with ferrous contents of 41.6 mg/1. The upward spring with water temperature not exceeding 4° and discharge of around 10 1/s. The water in its contents is sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium with mineralization of 0.26 g/1.

Churonsky springs - Upper Angara river valley, 14 km upper the Churokan river mouth. The thermal water with cumulative discharge of 10-14 1/s and temperature up to 35°C.

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