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Tourist capacity of natural monuments

Source:  Consrtvation of natural heritage of Baikal

The tourism at Baikal is rapidly developing. The plans on establishing of the special economic tourist-recreational zone in Pribaikalsky district of Buryatia began to realize. Nevertheless, a lot of issues are not addressed. There are two interlinked among them: what would attract tourists besides the lake itself, and how to conserve natural environment primordially maximally possible. In this regards the attention should be paid to natural monuments use as in both the Pribaikalsky district and the Ulan-Ude surroundings, through which the tourists would arrive at Baikal. Modern tourist should see something new everyday to stay longer and force him to fork out. At the same time the increased attention to natural monuments is necessary for their maximal conservation primordially.

Ivolginsky district

The area is exclusively suitable for tourism development: proximity of Ulan-Ude and airport, road network, landscapes diversity. The main sight - Ivolginsky datzan could also be considered as the landscape part, natural monument. There are certain rules under the selection of the place for datzan construction depending on their natural surrounding. These rules say: "in the east - wide spread open space, in the south - loaded with boulders, in the west - protuberant surface, and in the north - mountains like the draped curtain, along the river towards the south there should be bushes,  it is necessary if the water would not swirl". Other necessary landscape elements are spring (arshan) and sacred grove.                                    

Oh the way to datzan tourists could familiarize with the Ivolginsky mound. It is a picturesque height, reminding head in its form, which has the Buryat name of Bain-Togod. Its eastern slope is even, the western - rocky. There is a cave with tens of entrances at the bottom of the mountain. It is fallen with stones now. There's a small niche not far from the mountain - Gun-Saba cave, named in the honour of the Russian embassy Sawa Raguzinsky. Mound -is a sacred place, a place for local people recreation. The movies "Son of Wrangler" and "Golden House" were shot here.

There are mineral springs Otobulak and Kha-utinsky near. Radon spring Otobulak is in 5 km from Kluchi vil., close to Ulan-Ude - Kiakhta route. Mineral water is springing at the bottom of the ridge at the floor of spring crater of 30 m diameter with total debit of 1.31/sec. Water composition is carbonate calcium magnesium with mineralization of 0.37 g/1, temperature 8.2°C and radioactivity of 56-73 eman. It is used for healing by the local population.

Khalutinsky spring is also with radon carbonate calcium magnesium water with mineralization of 270 mg/1, debit up to 10 1/sec, temperature 2-3 ° and concentration of radon at 36-409 eman.

There is a very interesting for specialists and amateur-ornithologists forest massif Kokorinsky. This is a nestling site of heron (over 100 birds are nestling at 800x400 m area). The heron colony was put under the protection in April 1974 in line with the Japan-Russia Migratory Bird Treaty of 1973.

Geologists and stone-fanciers are attracted with uncovering Utochkin Deep (Beregovoe, Fersman's), the unique 200-meter lengthway uncovering of apatitiferous syenite, granitic pegmatites and hydrothermal zeolite mineralization. Over 30 minerals are described in this uncovering formation; these include the sun-stone manifestations - the craftwork variety of potash feldspar. The uncovering is a geological outdoor museum, described in details by academician A. Fersman in 1915. In 1960s-70s the uncovering was studied due to discovery of Oshurovsk apatite deposit.

Nowadays it is a site for student practices and further scientific research.

Not far is the Oshurkovo settlement - complex of noncontemporaneous settlements. The key object for the ancient man chronology in Trans-Baikal area, it was described by academician A. Okladnikov. The monument is almost lost due to the construction of the highway.

One more site for scientist pilgrimage - is Tologoysky cut. It was discovered by academician A. Okladnikov in 1951. This cut is of big significance for stratigraphy of Quaternary. It is distinguished with abundance of bonny remains of fishes, small and large mammals, including mole rat, creeper, hyena, Tologoy rhinoceros (Coelodonta tologoijensis), Sanmen horse, bison, kudu (Tragelaphinae). They are part of so called Tologoy faunistic complex.


Zaigraevsky district

This one is also near Ulan-Ude with developed infrastructure and human resources.

Satraya Brian cave is on the right side of the river in 1.7 km upper the village. Grotto is square in section, dry, the floor is covered with dung layer up to 20-30 cm thickness. The cave has many rock paintings, made with red ochre a la Selenga petroglyphs; part of them is discovered at the entrance and neighboring rocky juts.

Kharashibirsky columns are close to Atzagat village. It's an ensemble of picturesque rocks reminiscent of grand fortress. Mattress-kind parting of granites is well-marked. It's the sport tourism object

Varvarina Gora settlement near to Staraya Brian village. One of the most ancient settlements in the Eastern Siberia. The excavations were made in 1973-1978 under the leadership of academician A. Okladnikov, and in 1991-1994 - L. Lbova. Three layers with cultural horizons dated 34-36, 29-30 and 17 thousand years ago were discovered in the archeological excavation. The settlement of hunters for rhinoceros, wild horses and deer was located here in the frequently changing climate conditions. The excavations revealed the characteristic picture of Paleolithic dwelling and ancient man site. It's the scientific and educational tourism object.

Multilayer settlement Kamenka close to Staraya Brian village. Geo-archeological objects with time range of 40-2 thousand years ago, various timed burial ground.

Pribaikalsky district

Goryachinsky sprong - the most famous, probably, regional natural monument. It comes out to the surface as three gryphons in 1 km from the Baikal shore at the top of a small sandy ravine generating the brookThe healing features of the spring are known since late 18 century. Starting 1779 (according to other sources - in 1751) the first groups of sick arrived here, frequently military personnel with physicians. Such of them as Shilling, Inozemtzev, Elin permanently lived at springs and hold medical observations. The first one who studied the Turkinsky (Goryachinsky) spring in 1767 was e. laxman, who noticed its high healing abilities, although this description was published in only 1820. In 17751. Georgi published the outcomes of the analysis of the spring's water chemical composition. Than in 1808 the spring was studied by I. Reman. Many Decembrists and other famous people were healed at the spring. Up to 1962 the resort had drowned-out well with debit of 8.6 1/sec. at the least provided period. In 1962-1964 20 wells were made at the site of 75x350 m area with debit of 13.51/ sec. Waters of the resort are alkaline (pH 8-9) sulphate-sodium with mineralization of 0.5-0.65 g/1, content of silicate is 77-89 mg/1 and temperature of 52-53o content of hydrogen sulphide is 3-4 mg/1.

Fans of travelling could visit Zolotoy Kluch spring. It is located in Turka river valley in 5 km east way from Zolotoy Kluch vil, and is represented with nine outcomes of the thermal waters with summary discharge of around 0.4 1/sec. Six small slightly aerated gryphons are located at the right shore of the river, where water with the temperature of 20-50 oC is discharging from splits in granites. Three - at the small isle in Turka river, made of sandy-gravel-pebbles material, where maximum temperature of water in gryphons rises up to 49 oC, and in prospected shafts - up to 52 oC. The thermal water in its composition refers to sulphate sodium, with radon contents about 35 eman.

One more resort site, though problematic now, is Kotokel lake. The picturesque Kotokel lake is located between mouths of Turka and Kika rivers, has over 14 km length and around 5 km width. About 20 brooks stream into the lake with a lot of suspended particles, and Istok river has its sources from. The lake is separated from Baikal with low mountains massif overgrown with pine forest. The lake is inhabited with perch, soroga, ide, pike, carp and bream that come from Baikal to the lake for spawning and feeding. Swans, geese and ducks are stopping here when migrating. The vacation center and sanatorium "Baikalsky Bor" are located at the northern shore of the lake. The latter has the recreational and health-improving significance.

Here is also the Kotokelsky spring - the cold radon carbonate calcium-sodium water with high mineralization, debit of 0.31/sec and radon concentration of 50 eman.

There is a number of sights at the Baikal shores. But all places are passable, and the Big Baikal Path didn't reach Goryachinsl resort for some reason. Turtle Boulder reminiscent of the turtle with stretched neck in its shape is located in Baikal close to the shore northern of the Turka vil. Goryachinaskaya Cut at cape Tonkiy was made by I. Chersky (1877), renewed by V. Lamakin (1956) to study the Baikal level fluctuations.

The left-sided part of the region near Il'inka vil. there is the Pitatelevsky spring. I. Pitatelev MD was the first who focused seriously on the spring and tried to arrange the resort here in 1914. But it was established in 1928. The mineral water at that time was drawned-out at the left shore of Selenga river with two wells. During the period of high waters in 1933 and 1936 part of the left shore was washed away and the main center of hydrothermal waters discharge where the wells were located appeared to be in the riverbed. The resort ceased to exist Buryat geological department in 1960-1969 under the leadership of I. Borisenko carried out the detailed prospecting of Pitatelevsky spring. The spring was drawned-out in the bedrock with deep wells (up to 400 m) what provided the possibility to revive die resort. The waters outcome is adjusted to riverbed and left shore of the river. Exploitation water resources are 1,987 m3 a day. Part of the wells is gushing with water of temperature up to 70 °C. Water is chloride-sulphate sodium with mineralization of 1.7-2.0 g/1, content of silicate is 100-200 mg/1. There is a hydropathic establishment operating.

Among the monuments in the Itantza river area the most noticeable is Calcite Cave - the big karst cave with beautiful wandering formations. Its length is 192 m, depth - 42 . The cave consists of steep-incline tube-like passes and collapsing grottos. The walls and ceilings of passes are inlayed with crystalline crust of hydrothermal calcite of 15-25 cm. There are limonite stalactites, crusts, serpentines, curtains and stalagmites with size across and height up to 30 cm, calcite stalactites, stalagmites, crusts, draperies, serpentines and corallites. The floor is full with limestone and calcite crusts wreckage.

There is the Kolok lake in the upper Itantza river - mountainous lake with picturesque surrounding landscape.

Zasukhinsky cut is exclusively important for the reconstruction of geological history of Baikal rift zone. The cut's wall reveals six various aged sediment strata with fossil remains of mollusks, birds and various mammals, including hyena, elephant-archidiskodon, Tol-ogoy rhinoceros (Coelodonta tologoijensis), Sanmen horse, broad-fronted elk, bison, and kudu (Tragelaphinae).

Klochnevo-II cut is located not far from Zasukhinsky cut. This cut is characterized with mammal remains. The first finding (tooth of Sanmen horse) was made by N. Mikhno, one of the founders of the Kiakhtinsky local history museum.

There are botanical sights in the region either. The upper Khaim river - is the Redovsky rhododendron (Rhododendron redowskianum Maxim.) growing locality. Kominskaya grove - is the feather grass growth place.

This far not the full list shows how many there are natural sights, which could become objects of tourism and protection. The specialized study in this direction of areas with tourism under the development is necessary for fuller utilization of their capacity and conservation for future generations.




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