Natural monuments are unique, irreplaceable and ecologically, scientifically, aesthetically and culturally valuable nature objects of natural and artificial origin.
The term “natural monuments” was proposed by the German natural scientist A Humboldt (1918).
Natural monuments are the integral and the most numerous part of the system of Specially guarding natural territories (SGNT).
In accordance with the Federal law “On Specially Guarding Natural territories” (1995) the SGNT are areas of the national heritage where there are natural complexes and objects which have special nature protection, scientific, cultural, aesthetic, recreation and health-improving significance, by resolutions of the state bodies they are completely or partially withdrawn from economic exploitation with the special protection regimen. The main objective of the nature complexes and objects being declared nature monuments is to preserve them in their natural condition. On the territory of the monument itself and 200 metres around it it is not allowed to do anythinfg which threatens their preservation (Articles 26,27 of the Law of SGNT).
The natural monuments classification:
- landscape ones.
Unlike other SGNT the staff is not predetermined for them. Security organizations (schools can be among them) protect, control the state and the management of natural monuments.
266 natural monuments are found and protected in the Baikal basin: they are 19 landscape ones, 82 are geological, 111 – water ones, 25 are botanical, 9 are aoological and 20 are nature-historical.
Dendrological Parks and Botanical Gardens
These nature protection institutions make up special collections to preserve the plant world diversity and enrichment of it, as well as to do scientific, learning and educating activity. The territories can be divided into different functional zones including expositional, scientific- experimental and administrative ones (Articles 28,29 of the Law on).
The objectives, the scientific type, the special protection regimen of the concrete dendrological park and botanical garden zones are defined in the regulations on them approved by the corresponding executive power bodies which have adopted the resolutions to organize these institutions.
They are territories (water areas) suitable for organizing health care and diseases prevention, as well as for people’s recreation, and possessing natural medicinal resources.
To preserve the natural factors favourable for organizing health care and diseases prevention, areas of sanitary or mountain-sanitary protection are organized on the territories of the health resorts. For health resorts where the natural medicinal resources are from the earth’s interior (mineral waters, medicinal muds etc.) the areas of mountain-sanitary protection are established. In other cases areas of sanitary protection are established (Articles 31, 32 of the Law on SGNT).