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THE BAIKAL CHRONICLES

Source:  Tulokhonov A.K. I Am Getting to Know the Baikal / A.K. Tulokhonov, O.A. Yekimovskaya, A.N. Beshentsev. Novosibirsk, 2002. p. 3-5

110 BC the lake is first mentioned in the Chinese written sources under the name of Beihai.

6-8th centuries the prime of the Kurykan culture on the shore of the lake.

10-12th centuries the Mongolian tribes force the Kurykans northward to Lake Baikal.

11-14th centuries a new ethnic tribe of Khori is formed in the Baikal land, there are also tribes of the Turkic and Tungus origin.

17-18th centuries the Buryat nation is formed on the shores of the lake.

1643 the first detachment of Russian Cossacks comes to the lake, headed by Kurbat Ivanov. The name of Baikal becomes established.

1655 Avvakum the Archpriest comes to exile. He was one of the first to write an expressive literary description of the lake.

1667 the first schematic depiction of Lake Baikal in The Draft of the Siberian Land is made by order of the Tobolsk voevode (governor) P. Godunov.

1701 the first correct schematic map of the lake is presented in The Draft Book of Siberia made by the Tobolsk Cossack S.U. Remezov.

1729 D.G. Messerschmidt, the first scientist sent to Lake Baikal by personal order of Peter the Great, makes the first description of the lake.

1844 the Baikal shipping company is organized. The first ships Imperator Nikolai I and Naslednik Tsesarevich are launched.

1862 after the force 10 earthquake in the northern part of the Selenga river delta a part of land with 5 villages and 1,300 inhabitants, with the area of 200 sq. km, sank into the water. As a result a new gulf formed named the Proval (Gap).

1898 a railway was laid to the port of Baikal.

June 17, 1899 the Baikal ferry icebreaker is launched, the second biggest in the world.

July 25, 1900 the Angara icebreaker is launched.

1900-1906 the Baikal railway ferry is started.

1903-1904 between the railway stations of Baikal and Tankhoi (about 40 versts, over 40 km apart) rails were laid on the ice of the lake, and carriages and steam engines were drawn on them.

1902-1905 a part of the Baikal round railway is built.

1908 an atlas of Lake Baikal is published on 31 pages (the scale is one verst in an inch).

1916 the Barguzin biospheric natural reserve is founded, the first one at the lake.

1918 the USSR Academy of Sciences permanent research expedition is founded in the village of Bolshie Koty.

1925 the USSR Academy of Sciences research expedition is transferred to the village of Maritui and is renamed into the permanent USSR Academy of Sciences research limnological station.

1925-1929 the Baikal expedition guided by G.Yu. Vereshchagin explored the main parts of the lake.

1950-1958 the Irkutsk hydropower station is built which caused an average 1 m raise of the lake level.

1958 in the southern part of Lake Baikal the Komsomol construction of the future town of Baikalsk and the Baikalsk cellulose and paper making plant is started.

1959 the depth of 1,620 m is recorded after measurement by a lead line from the ice of the lake.

1961 the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences Limnological Institute is founded based on the Baikal limnological station in the village of Listvyanka.

1962 in the Kiev Leninskaya Kuznitsa plant the G.Yu. Vereshchagin ship is built which became the biggest research ship at the lake. It is a vessel of 560 tons displacement, 43.6 m long and 7.8 m wide.

1963 the Kievnauchfilm studio made the first underwater film about the life of the Baikal flora and fauna.

1966 the Baikal cellulose and paper making plant is launched.

1969-1975 the trading fishing of the omul is banned to restore its general quamtity.

1974 the depth of the lake of 1,637 m is recorded with the help of echo-sounding device measurement.

1986 the Pribaikal and Baikal national parks and the Baikalo-Lensky natural reserve are founded.

1990 The Blue Eye of Siberia film is released made by English documentary film makers supported by UNESCO.

1991 the Baikal Institute of the rational nature usage is founded, now it is the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Baikal Institute of the rational nature usage.

1991 the sinking to the Baikal maximum depth of 1,637 m is carried out by the special Pisces deep-water device.

1992 the permanent government Baikal comission is organized which coordinates the activity to prepare and carry out The Complex Programme on Lake Baikal Basin Nature Preservation and Natural Resources Rational Usage.

1992 the first drilling is done not far from the Buguldeika river mouth. The first kern of the bottom sediments 120 m long is received.

1993 the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Baikal ecological museum is founded on the basis of the Limnological Institute museum.

1993 the Russian Academy of Sciences published The Baikal scientific reference atlas based on long-term research.

September 1994 International conference The Baikal as a Model Territory of Sustainable Development took place in Ulan Ude and near Lake Baikal.

1994 the Russian Federation government adopted the complex programme on Lake Baikal preservation and its basin natural resources rational usage.

December 9, 1995 the first International tourist fair Baikal-Tour-95 took place, which later became annual.

1995 Lake Baikal geographic atlas with popular material  is published in Russian and English by the Federal service of  geodesy and cartography of Russia.

1996 Lake Baikal is included into the UNESCO World Heritage list.

1996 International world symposium on Central Asian shamanism and the first scientific conference Preservation of Lake Baikal Biological Diversity take place in Ulan Ude.

September 1998 International conference Lake Baikal as a Part of the World Heritage: Results and Prospects of International Cooperation takes place in Ulan Ude and at Lake Baikal.

1998 near the Ushkanyi isles the deepest drilling (600 m) in Lake Baikal is done from a platform frozen into the ice. The research of sediments approved of the lakes 15 mln. years existence.

April 1999 the Law on Baikal is adopted.

2000 the Law on ecological zoning of the Baikal natural territory and the population informing on the borders of the Baikal natural territory is adopted.

August 23-25, 2001 International conference Lake Baikal as the World Heritage is held within the programme of the Baikal economic forum.

2001 Istomino Inter-departmental educational station is founded on the shore of Lake Baikal.

 











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